Surrogacy refers to the process of implanting fertilized eggs into the mother’s uterus, and completing the “one-month pregnancy with childbirth ” on behalf of the mother. Women need to implant other people’s fertilized eggs during surrogacy. The combination of sperm and eggs outside the human body must implement “human assisted reproduction technology.”
This technology can only be implemented in medical institutions approved by the health administrative department, it can only be used for medical purposes, and it conforms to the national family planning policy, ethical principles and relevant laws and regulations.
What is a surrogate mother
Surrogacy mothers provide contract mothers with a complex service that integrates physical, chemical, and biological activities. This service delivers the subject baby. Contract mothers have an obligation to pay remuneration. The remuneration includes not only the rental of uterus, commission for surrogacy services, but also the cost of purchasing the baby. The debt and debt relationship between them includes multiple contracts: lease contracts, service contracts, and trading platforms. The question is whether these stations will take effect. Can the creditor’s right be realized? The creditor’s right should first occur between two or more specific parties. It arises from certain facts and should conform to the provisions of law in the form and content department. As far as “borrowing children”. The acting mother rented her body. Beyond the scope of their physical rights; moreover, the two parties treat the baby as a commodity, which is not only contrary to human nature, but also has no legal support, and its contractual relationship is invalid. A surrogate mother is a technique in which a woman cannot conceive due to a variety of reasons, taking her eggs and her husband’s sperm for in vitro fertilization, and then transplanting the blastocyst into the uterine cavity of another normal woman to continue to develop into a fetus. At present, the emergence of surrogate mothers often raises some ethical issues. According to common sense, a pregnant woman should be the mother of the baby, but from a scientific perspective, the womb of a pregnant woman is only the “soil” environment needed for embryonic development, so it will confuse people in terms of emotions. Surrogate mothers are technically without any difficulties, but since humans are animals with complex emotions, they should be implemented with care.
Types of surrogacy
- Sperm and eggs come from the uterus of the surrogate mother and wife.
- The sperm comes from her husband, and the eggs are provided by a third-party egg- donating volunteer.
- Sperm and eggs are provided by third-party volunteers. In vitro fertilization (artificial insemination or IVF) is used by the surrogate pregnant mother to give birth.
- The sperm is provided by a third-party volunteer, the egg is provided by the wife, and the surrogate mother is used to give birth.
- Please fill in the surrogacy requirement registration information on the Debao Surrogacy Network Demand Registration page, or contact directly by phone.
- The client supervisor on this site will determine your true intention of cooperation (customer surrogacy customers) by phone or video. You need to provide general information to the client supervisor.
- Meet the customer supervisor in a public place where the site is located (the customer can specify the specific meeting place).
- After meeting and talking in detail, reach the preliminary intention. And verify the true identity of both parties.
- Select a surrogate mother and make a physical examination after confirmation.
- The client-designated hospital will conduct a comprehensive physical examination of the surrogate mother, and the medical examination will sign a loving surrogacy contract.
- Within three working days of signing a love surrogacy contract, the client supervisor will take the volunteer and the demand side to the hospital to determine the medical plan.
- In accordance with the doctor’s advice, both sides will condition the body, take the sperm and eggs, and transplant.
- The blood test was successful on the 14th day after transplantation. After successful, we will take care of it to production. Unsuccessful restart of the medical plan, if the client requests it, he can change volunteers.
- Baby handover. Infants and surrogates can pick up the babies after they are discharged from the hospital, and the customer’s supervisor will destroy the customer’s information and contracts on the same day.
Ways of Surrogacy Services
Artificial insemination and surrogacy. The methods of artificial insemination are:
- Artificial insemination of husband’s sperm refers to the use of husband’s semen for artificial insemination. Mainly suitable for male infertility caused by oligospermia, asthenospermia and semen liquefaction.
- Insemination and artificial insemination Artificial insemination is performed using semen provided by volunteer donors. Mainly suitable for azoospermia and a small number of male infertile males with congenital malformations of the genital tract or genetic diseases.
- Mixed insemination and artificial insemination The insemination of the donor’s semen with the husband’s semen is performed after artificial insemination to reduce the psychological burden. At present, the main target of artificial fertilization and surrogacy are uterine malformations, cervical mucus abnormalities, and ovulation disorders of the demand-side wife. The husband’s semen is normal, but he has intercourse disorders, sperm has antibodies and sperm are scarce, or the semen liquefaction time has passed. Long and non-liquefied people.
The purpose of artificial insemination is to treat male infertility. Therefore, the wife’s reproductive function must be normal, it must be clear that the female fallopian tube must be unobstructed, and the ovary must have normal ovulation function. The appropriate time for artificial insemination is the pre-ovulation period when the cervical mucus is secreted the most, and the ultrasound can be used to monitor the development of follicles. In today’s society, the number of infertile couples who desire artificial insemination has been increasing, but attention should be paid to the indications and social and legal guarantees should also be provided.
Second, IVF surrogacy
IVF surrogacy is the use of eggs and sperm on the demand side to make test-tube embryos, implanted in the body of surrogacy volunteers to complete the entire pregnancy. In vitro fertilization embryo transfer (commonly known as the first generation): It varies from person to person. After the ovulation-promoting drugs with different schemes are used, when the eggs are mature, the eggs are taken out of the sperm (treated) with the husband through the vagina under the guidance of B ultrasound The insemination in the dish develops into an embryo, which is then placed in the woman’s womb. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection-Embryo transfer is suitable for patients with extremely low sperm and weak sperm. In the above methods (commonly known as the first generation) can not be in vitro fertilization, microinjection can be used to inject sperm into the oocyte cytoplasm to help insemination. For the sperm of the man, the sperm can be collected by epididymal aspiration or testicular biopsy technology, and his own child can be obtained with the help of microscopy. Don’t blindly accept other people’s sperm, but the man must first take a blood test to check for abnormalities in the chromosome model to avoid inheritance. The disease was passed on to the offspring. Even so, some small gene deletions are still undetectable, so microinjection technology may help the offspring to develop genetic diseases. The success rate of this technology is 45% -50%. Embryo screening to prevent genetic diseases (commonly known as the third generation) The couples with genetic diseases are screened for embryos developed through in vitro fertilization, and embryos without the genetic disease genes are transplanted into the woman’s uterus.
(1) In vitro fertilization -embryo transfer (IVF-ET, commonly known as the first-generation IVF)
Mainly for female factors infertility.
- The woman’s sperm and egg transportation disorders caused by various factors.
- Ovulation disorders.
- Man with few and weak spermatozoa.
- Unexplained infertility.
- Immune infertility.
(2) Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, commonly known as second-generation IVF)
Mainly for severe male infertility.
- Severe oligo, weak, teratozoospermia.
- Irreversible obstructive azoospermia.
- Spermatogenic dysfunction (excluding genetic defects).
- Immune infertility.
- In vitro fertilization fails.
- Sperm acrosome abnormality.
(3) Preimplantation embryo inheritance (diagnosis (PGD, commonly known as third-generation test) infants)
Suitable for: single-gene-associated genetic diseases, chromosomal diseases, sex-linked genetic diseases, and high-risk groups of children who may have abnormal fertility.
(4) Donating eggs to test tube babies.
- Loss of ability to produce eggs.
- The woman is a carrier or patient of a severe hereditary disease.
- There are obvious factors that affect the number and quality of eggs.
- Frozen storage of embryos – If multiple eggs are obtained in one stimulation cycle, and in vitro fertilization and division are performed to form multiple embryos, the remaining good quality embryos after transplantation can be stored frozen. If pregnancy is not achieved during this cycle, the transplant can be thawed at a later natural cycle. The natural endocrine environment is conducive to embryo implantation, but freeze-thaw is an injury to the embryo, and its vitality is worse than that of a fresh embryo.
Fourth, natural surrogacy – Natural surrogacy is no longer used, and has been eliminated. The two most popular today are the above two, which were more common in the past.
Probability of Surrogacy
The success rate of surrogacy depends on many factors, such as the age of the patient, the conditions of the uterus and ovaries , and the presence of other diseases, laboratory conditions, and the level of technicians. The most influential factor is the woman’s age, because age means a corresponding level of ovarian function. Researchers also found that smoking can affect IVF success rates. If a woman smokes more than one cigarette per day for a year, her success rate in surrogacy is reduced by 28%. In addition, BMI also affects the success rate of “IVF”. When it exceeds 27, the success rate is 30% lower than the average success rate. The patient’s mood also has a certain effect on the success rate of surrogacy. The success rate of surrogacy is generally higher in optimistic patients than in pessimistic patients. Patients should actively cooperate with the webmaster’s arrangements. The more the webmaster knows about the patient, the greater the chance of success. Surrogacy technology is developing rapidly and the success rate is also increasing. It is hoped that every patient who needs surrogacy can realize his dream of being a mother.
Laws allow implementation of surrogacy standards
Legal surrogacy refers to the implantation of the fertilized embryo of a patient’s couple into another woman’s uterus, and the woman completes the process of ” conceiving in October with a childbirth, ” commonly known as “borrowing a child from the belly”. Surrogacy has changed the traditional way of childbirth, and has challenged both the traditional concept of birth and the law.
The implementation of “surrogacy” technology has serious social hazards, involving a series of social, moral, and legal issues, and runs counter to existing laws, regulations, ethics, and social morals. The health administration will seriously investigate and punish any medical institution and medical staff who illegally implement surrogacy technology. The above is the clear attitude of the Ministry of Health, and the medical community and the social ethics and law circles have been discussing about where the surrogacy technology will go next. The reason for this discussion is that the technology has certain social and medical needs from some perspectives. Many women are unable to have children because of uterine factors, and these people may only fulfill their wishes through surrogacy technology. However, the special nature of surrogacy technology makes this technology bring huge hidden dangers to the society and the patient’s family, which is contrary to our current ethical norms. Moreover, the current law does not allow the implementation of surrogacy technology. Disputes arising from technology will not have the support of law and are destined to be without protection.